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Saving money

Are you a saver or a spender? “A penny saved is a penny earned.” This old saying calls attention to the wisdom of saving money. “Putting money away for a rainy day” is another way to talk about saving for the future. In the United States, people who want to start a savings account have different choices of where to put their money. These include banks and credit unions. Credit unions are cooperatives for individuals who often share a work-related connection. For example, the members might work for a university or a government agency. Most credit unions are non-profit organizations. Credit unions, banks and other financial institutions pay interest on savings accounts. But the interest rates are generally low. Certificates of deposit pay higher returns. With a certificate of deposit, or CD, a person agrees not to withdraw the money for a period of time. This term could be anywhere from a few months to several years. Longer terms, and larger amounts, pay higher interest. People have to pay a small fine to withdraw their money early. Another way to save is through a money market fund. This is a kind of mutual fund. Mutual funds invest money from many people. The money is sometimes placed in short-term government securities. Money market funds, however, may not be federally guaranteed like other kinds of savings. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation guarantees savings up to 250-thousand dollars.

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Turn Negative Writing Experiences Into Positive Ones

4 mistakes

1.Today we hear expert suggestions for academic writing. Jennifer Ahern-Dodson is an assistant professor of the Practice in Writing Studies at Duke University in North Carolina.

2.Ms. Ahern-Dodson likes to start a discussion with both students and professors planning to write a paper or essay. She asks about their earlier writing experiences. Were they negative or positive?

3.She says you are not alone if you have had problems with your writing. Everyone in struggles with writing. “Writing is hard. It’s hard for all writers at some point,” she says.

4.”And at some point you are going to hit a roadblock,” she adds. She advises to think about earlier experiences. When the writing is going well, what was happening? When the writing was not going well, what was happening?

5.She says most people’s negative writing experiences happened because a very specific formula or page limit was required.

6.Another problem can arise when the need to do well on a paper is extremely important. Anxiety, she says, can make it harder to get the writing done.

7.Ms. Ahern-Dodson says when writing comes easily, the writers believe they have something important to say. She advises asking yourself questions. What insights can you bring to your paper?

8.Why does this subject matter? What is its importance? For whom is it meaningful? Who will be reading it? You can ease writing by placing your attention on what you have to offer. That, says Ms. Ahern-Dodson, is an important change for all writers.

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How Islamic Finance Works

4/7/2016 – 4 mistakes

Islamic: HỒI GIÁO

1.Dubai’s recent debt problems have brought attention to the growth of Islamic finance. A government-owned group of companies, Dubai World, has been seeking to restructure (tái cơ cấu) twenty-six billion dollars of debt. About six billion of it is in Islamic bonds, including a three and a half billion dollar bond set for repayment (sự trả lại) in December.

Các vấn đề nợ hiện nay tại Dubai đang tập trung vào việc phát triển tài chính ở Islamic. Một nhóm công ty thuộc chính phủ, mang tên Dubai World, đã và đang tìm cách tải cơ cấu món nợ 16 tỷ Đô. Khoảng 6 tỷ trong số đó là trái phiếu Islamic, với 3,5 tỷ Đô dành cho việc hoàn trả tháng 12.

2. The biggest difference between Western and Islamic finance involves beliefs about charging interest on borrowed money. In Islam, the basic idea is that you should not make money from money itself.

Khác biệt lớn nhất giữa tài chính Western và Islamic là những kỳ vọng kiếm lãi khi cho vay tiền. Ở Islam, quan niệm cơ bản là không nên kiếm tiền từ chính khoản tiền đó.

3.Instead of interest, lenders charge fees. Ghiyath Nakshbendi at American University in Washington is an expert on Islamic financing .He says: “The bank will estimate its costs based on its fixed costs, variable costs, the cost of their employees, the range  rent and so on and so forth.

Thay vì trả lãi, người cho vay sẽ phải trả các loại phí. Ghiyath Nakshbendi, từ một trường đại học Mỹ ở Washington, là một chuyên gia tài chính Islamic. Ông nói: “Ngân hàng sẽ ước tính chi phí dựa vào chi phí cố định, chi phí biến đổi, chi phí chi cho nhân viên, giá thuê cũng như nhiều loại chi phí khác.

4. And from that they estimate how much they are going to charge. But he points out that this system can make Islamic financing costly. The costs of the system are shared by the borrowers.

Từ đó, họ ước tính được phải đánh phí bao nhiêu. Tuy nhiên, tác dụng này có thể làm hao tốn nền tài chính Islamic. Chi phí cho hệ thống này được chia đều cho người đi vay.

5. The fewer the borrowers, the more each has to pay. In many cases, Islamic financing requires the lender and borrower to share profits and losses. Ghiyath Nakshbendi explains what that means with Islamic bonds, called sukuk. He says the bondholders are buying a share of a business or property.

Càng ít người vay thì tiền phí cho mỗi người càng cao. Trong nhiều trường hợp, tài chính Islamic yêu cầu người cho vay và người vay chia sẻ lợi nhuận và thua lỗ. Ghiyath Nakshbendi giải thích rằng, trái phiếu như vậy ở Islamic được gọi là Sukuk. Ông còn nói, người giữ trái phiếu mua cổ phiếu của doanh nghiệp hoặc tài sản của nó.

6.If business is good, then they could get back more than they expected. But if it fails, then there is no guarantee of repayment Islamic bonds can be structured in different ways, but a major idea is shared profit and loss. Professor Nakshbendi says Islamic lending practices are also supposed to be socially responsible.

Nếu kinh doanh tốt, họ có thể kiếm được khoản tiền hơn mong đợi. Tuy nhiên, nếu thất bại, không có một khoản hoàn trả cổ phiếu đảm bảo nào được cấu trúc theo các cách khác nhau, vì quan điểm chính vẫn là chia sẻ lợi nhuận và thua lỗ. Gíao sư Nakshbendi nói rằng, thông lệ cho vay ở Islamic thường được ủng hộ để trở nên đáng tin cậy.

7.In world banking, the total share of Islamic finance is less than one percent. But it is growing at the race rate of fifteen to twenty percent a year. There is growing interest in Islamic banking in the West. London is becoming a center of Islamic finance. And France recently proposed changes in finance laws to protect ect Islamic bondholders.

Trong ngành ngân hàng thế giới, tổng cổ phiếu của tài chính Islamic thấp hơn 1%. Nhưng sự tăng trưởng của nó lên đến 15-20% một năm. Có sự tăng lãi suất của ngân hàng Islamic ở phía Tây. London đang dần trở thành trung tâm tài chính Islamic. Và Pháp đang đề xuất thay đổi luật tài chính để bảo vệ người giữ trái phiếu Islamic.

8.Estimates differ, but as much as one and a half trillion dollars may be managed under Islamic rules. In two thousand eight, the International Monetary Fund studied the financial security of Islamic banks. It found that their lack of complex products like futures and derivatives  limits the ability to spread risk.

Đánh giá sự khác biệt, tối đa là 1,5 tỷ tỷ Đô có thể được quản lý dưới luật lệ Islamic. Năm 2008, Qủy tiền tệ Quốc Tế nghiên cứu sự bảo đảm tài chính của ngân hàng Islamic. Qũy này đã nhận ra rằng có sự thiếu sản phẩm phức tạp như hàng hóa kỳ hạn và việc giao nhận hạn chế khả năng rủi ro gia tăng.

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Food Makers See Crunch Time Against New Maize for Fuel

4/7/2016 – 4 Mistakes
1.Food companies say a new kind of maize could take the crunch out of corn chips and other popular foods. The big Swiss company Syngenta genetically engineered the maize to contain an enzyme called alpha amylase.

2.The company says this  enzyme will help the crop produce more ethanol, a renewable fuel, while using less water and energy. Syngenta official Jack Bernens says the enzyme breaks the starch down into sugar which then is fermented into ethanol.

3. A two thousand seven law requires gasoline in the United States to contain renewable fuels. About forty percent of America’s corn crop is being used this year to make ethanol. The Department of agriculture has approved the genetically modified maize without restrictions.

4. But five major groups in the food industry say they are concerned that the new maize could enter the food supply. In a joint statement they say the enzyme that breaks down starch could harm the taste of their products. For example, they say it might soften cereals and cause corn chips to lose their satisfying crunch.

5. Mary Waters heads one of those food Groups, the North American Millers’ Association. She says even a small amount of the maize could cause problems if it mixes with corn used to make food. Snack foods made with corn are a six-billion-dollar industry in the United States.

6.In two thousand one, genetically modified corn made by Syngenta was found in the food supply chain without approval. Syngenta paid a fine to the government. Jim McCarthy, president of the Snack Food Association, says the incident caused no health problems

7. But he says it did cause major disruption in the availability of food-grade corn. So his group is urging Syngenta to reconsider their plan. Syngenta says it will take measures to keep the new maize out of the food supply. Jack Bernens says the company sell seed only to farmers who take their crops to nearby ethanol processing plants.

8. He says the company will not sell seed in areas where food makers get their maize. Mr. Bernens says the company has done a lot of research and found that the risk from a few kernels is overstated. The food industry groups object to conditions placed on companies that want to study that research. Syngenta says it has trade secrets to protect